How are the results of a bone density test determined? A computer scan using the DXA method was performed.

Results Of a Bone Density Test Determined:

The DXA scan produces a "T score," which is a numerical representation of the findings. The patient's bone density is compared to the average peak bone density of a young adult of the same gender and ethnicity using a statistical comparison (SD, or standard deviation).

Osteopenia, a precursor to osteoporosis, is defined by a T score of -1 to -2.5 SD.

Osteoporosis is indicated by a T score of -2.5 SD or less.

Bones are living tissue that needs energy and nutrients to function. The cells of our bones (osteocytes) communicate with each other through interior canals filled with liquid (lacunae).  

These osteocytes reside in spaces called lacunae that contain tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that provide the cells with nutrients, oxygen, and remove metabolic wastes. A canal system inside the bone made of fluid-filled channels delivers blood to the interior of long bones. This system is called a Haversian or Volkmann's canal.

Bones for Growth:

Blood carries minerals to the bones for growth, repair, and maintenance. Minerals are also deposited within the bone matrix—primarily calcium phosphate salts, but also including magnesium, sodium, potassium, and fluoride. Fluoride is deposited in the bone when drinking fluoridated water.

Calcium phosphate salts are naturally occurring chemicals that contain calcium, phosphorus, and oxygen. Calcium phosphate salts make bones hard and strong, but still lightweight. Humans need to keep their bones at peak density; otherwise, osteoporosis may occur (decreased density). The opposite of osteoporosis is called osteogenesis (increased density). The goal of this article is to show how the results of a bone-density test determine if an individual has increased or decreased skeletal mass.  

The body needs minerals for many functions including blood coagulation (clotting), muscle contraction, enzymatic reactions within cells, nerve function, and cell-to-cell communication. Minerals are also vital to bone formation, repair, and maintenance. Calcium is probably the most abundant mineral in the body.  

Calcium phosphate salts make bones hard and strong but still lightweight. To achieve this strength, calcium ions bond to clusters of phosphorus molecules forming crystalline hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the chief component of earthworm castings, snail shells, teeth, bird eggshells, fish scales, bovine hooves, pig tusks, human bones, coral reefs, pearls, clam shells, limestone precipitates (foundations of buildings), pearlescent cosmetics (eye shadows) found in some nail polishes, etc.

Blood plasma contains minerals in ionized form. Ions are atoms, molecules or ions that have lost an electron or gained a proton making them unstable and highly reactive. The mineral calcium is the most abundant ion in blood plasma. 

The body needs energy for various tasks including motion (muscle contraction), thought processes, brain function, cellular function, and building new cells. Energy comes from macronutrients such as carbohydrates , proteins , and fats . Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Glucose (sugar) is the most important carbohydrate in biology because it is readily metabolized by living cells to generate energy rich electrons.